In the name of Allah; the most Compassionate; the most Merciful
The best narration is the most concise one. The most illustrating messages are those that are exact and brief. The best statements and information are those that avoid flowery language while sticking to the path of obvious facts and proven actualities. These do not need elaboration or explanation, nor do they require defense or justification.
Stark figures stand as one of the most prominent, truthful testimonies to the chronicles of time and history.
The Royal Committee for Jerusalem Affairs saw fit to ascertain the book of the past and examine the path of history.
The goal is to get the summary of summaries and make it known to all. It follows a chronological sequence of time that registers the most important actualities of Jerusalem.
It follows the city as the Canaanites moved over its soil, and as the Arabs erected its edifices. All the while, it traverses the path of all conquerors travellers dreamers and greedy people.
The aim is to elucidate the Arabism of the city name, body, flesh and blood as well as to cast light on the sanctity of its sites and the evolution of its residents and area. Also, the aim is to highlight the most important of its landmarks and treasures and to enumerate the severest of its catastrophes and ordeals.
This is Jerusalem the holy and Arabic in origin and birth. This is how it was and will continue to be. This will be the case until the day that Allah the Almighty inherits the earth and those on it.
Secretary – General,
The Names Of Jerusalem
Ur Salim (Ur Shalim): It means the city of peace or the city of Salim. It is the name given to the city by the Arab Canaanites (the Yabusites are among them) who established it.
The name is ascribed to the Arab tribe (Yabusites) who fortified it.
This is the name known to the city by the Egyptians.
The Jewish name for the city, which is a corruption of the Arab Canaanite word (Ur Salim).
This is the Greek name of the city.
Elia Capitolina :
This is the name given to the city by the Romans after its destruction and reconstruction. The name was shortened to (ELIAA) or (ELIA) when the Muslims opened the city.
Bayt Al-Maqdis (Al-Quds; The Holy) :
The name given to the city by Muslim Arabs.
The English name of the city. The rest of the names in the European languages does not fall far from this name.
It is to be noted that the Canaanite Arab name was the one used by the different invading countries with the exception of the Romans who changed it when they destroyed the city.
It was the Arabs who gave it its original name.
It was also named after one of their tribes. The Muslim Arabs gave it a name that shows the extent of its holiness and sanctity for them.
This was done when they returned to it as Muslim liberators and continues until the present.
Jerusalem Throughout History
3000 B.C. :
The Arab Canaanites established the city in the third millennium B.C., as archeologists state.
1879 B.C. :
in the Egyptian Tablets, called the Texts of the Curse, the name Ur Salim (the city of peace) was mentioned as the name for the city . The name reoccurred in the year 1300 B.C. in the Tal Al- Amarnah Tablets. At that time, the city was inhabited by the Arab Yabusites.
1300 – 63 B.C. :
The city suffered invasion, occupation and destruction. It witnessed important events during this period . It was occupied by the Egyptians, the Jews, the Assyrians, the Babylonians, the Persians and the Greeks.
63 B.C – 636 A.D. :
This was the era of the Roman rule, which lasted around 700 years. The most important events during this period were :
– The appearance of Jesus Christ (the Messiah) around the first year B.C.
– 70 The city was destroyed by the Roman Emperor Titus.
The Roman Commander Hadirian destroyed the city. On its site, he built the city Elia Capitolina.
The Church of the Sepulchre was built.
The Roman Empire was divided into two Empires: Rome and Byzantine. Jerusalem was attached to the Byzantine Empire.
The Persians occupied the city until the year 629 when it reverted back to the Roman rule. It remained so until the Islamic liberation.
636 – 1917 :
The Arab and Islamic Era in Jerusalem.
The Muslim Arabs liberated Jerusalem once more in a peaceful manner. The Caliph, Omar Ibn Al- Khattab, entered the city and gave its people the renowned Omar pledge (covenant).
The Ummayid Caliph, Abdul Malik Bin Marwan, built the Dome of the Venerable Rock.
The construction of Al- Aqsa Mosque was completed by the Ummayid Caliph Abdul Malik Bin Marwan and his son Al-Waleed.
747 – 1099 :
During this period, Jerusalem was under the rule of the Abbasides, the Tolonians, the Ikhshidis and the Fatimides. They all cared for Jerusalem . They restored the Aqsa Mosque, the Dome of the Rock and other buildings of the city that were affected by the earthquakes that struck the region. This was done during the times of the following caliphs and rulers: Abu Jafaar Al-Mansour, al-Mahdi, Haroun Al-Rasheed, Al- Mamoun, Al- Moktadir, Kafoor, Al-Ikhshidi, Al-Hakam, The Ruler by the command of Allah) al- Zahir and Al- Montasir.
The Crusaders occupied Jerusalem where they perpetrated a horrible massacre and killed the majority of its inhabitants. They converted the Mosque of the Dome of the Rock into the Church of the Lord (the Messiah). They converted part of the Aqsa Mosque into a church and the other part into living quarters for their cavalry as well as a warehouse for their arms.
As for the subterranean valuts, they turned these into stables for the horses. These were known as the old Aqsa and the Marwani place of prayer. The Crusaders occupation of the city lasted for 88 years.
Salah Eddeen (Saladin) liberated the city from the Crusaders. He ordered the restoration of its walls. Nonetheless, the Crusaders managed to control it more than once, and for short periods, during the era of the Ayyoubites. Its walls were destroyed and rebuilt during their time.
The Mamlukes assumed power. They cared for Jerusalem. They built numerous small mosques, hospices, asylums, schools, mosques and public fountains. This period continued until the year 1516 A.D.
The Ottoman Turks conquered the city. The most prominent events during this period were:
– Construction of the present wall by the Sultan Suleiman the Law-Giver. The restoration of the Dome of the Rock and al- Aqsa Mosque.
– The Frantic scramble by the states of the West to open consulates in Jerusalem in order to undermine the Turkish influence.
– The conclusion of the so-called (Status Quo Agreement) between the Western powers and the Ottoman state regarding the holy religious sites in Jerusalem.
1831 – 1840 :
Submission of the city to the rule of Mohammad Ali Pasha.
– The start of construction outside the wall of the old city in what came to be known as the new Jerusalem.
The establishment of the municipality of Jerusalem and the restoration of the Church of the Sepulchre.
Proclamation of the Jerusalem sinjik (A subdivision of a vilayet- province) as an administrative unit separate from the province of Syria.
The start of the waves of mass Jewish immigration from Russia to Jerusalem and Palestine. Jerusalem remained under the Turkish rule for 400 years.
1917 – 1948 : The British Occupation Period :
The infamous Balfour Declaration was issued. The British occupied the city.
The British Mandate was proclaimed over Palestine. This step permitted the imposition of laws that facilitated the immigration of the Jews to Palestine and the facilitation of their appropriation of its land and the expulsion of its people.
Al Buraq Revolt and the issuance of the decision of the International Committee that the Buraq is a purely Islamic property and that the Jews have no right therein.
The start of Al- Qassam Revolt and his martyrdom at the hands of the British.
The Great Palestinian Revolt that continued until 1939.
Publication of the Sir Fitzgerald Report for the partition of Jerusalem.
The Issuance of the United Nations Resolution calling for the partition of Palestine and a separate Corpus Separatum for Jerusalem.
The breakout of the war between the Arabs and the Jews.
A series of massacres perpetrated by the Israelis resulted in the catastrophes of Palestine, and the rise of the Zionist entity, as well as the occupation by Israel of the western part of the city. This is in addition to the occupation of 77% of the land of Palestine.
1948-1967 : The Period of the Division of Jerusalem
1948 – 1949 :
The catastrophe that befell Palestine was the signing of the armistice agreement between Israel and the Arab states in Rhodes.
The Jordanian Parliament agreed that the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan should include the West Bank and the eastern part of Jerusalem.
The first municipal elections were held in the eastern part of Jerusalem.
The municipal boundaries of the municipality of eastern Jerusalem were expanded as well as the municipality of the so- called West Jerusalem.
Proclamation of the conversion of the municipality of East Jerusalem into Jerusalem Amanah (trust) and its consideration as the second capital of Jordan.
The convening in Jerusalem of the first session of the Palestinian National Council, where the Palestinian National Charter was issued and the executive committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization was set up.
1967: the Israeli Occupation of the whole City :
7 June 1967 :
Israel Occupied the eastern part of Jerusalem.
27 June 1967 :
Proclamation of the application of the Israeli laws on Jerusalem.
28 June 1967 :
The sequestration of the lands of the Arabs to the east of Jerusalem and its annexation to West Jerusalem so that it became the municipality of the united Jerusalem.
28 June 1967 :
Confiscation of 116 dunums within the old city and the demolition of the buildings therein for the purpose of building new ones to house the Jews.
29 June 1967 :
Dissolution of the Amanah ( municipal) council of the Jerusalem Arab city.
4 July 1967 :
Passing of resolution 2253 of the General Assembly of the United Nations, which stipulates that the Israeli measures in Jerusalem are null and void and should be rescinded.
25 July 1967 :
Israel conducted a census for the inhabitants of Jerusalem residing there at that time. It issued Israeli identity cards and considered those outside the city as non- residents and denied them the right to return there.
1 September 1967 :
The Arab Summit, that meet in Khartoum, demanded that Israel withdraw from all the territories it occupied in 1967.
21 may 1968 :
Security Council Resolution No: 252 was passed stipulating that the acquisition of Israel of land by force is inadmissible. It expressed regret for its (Israel’s) ignoring and not applying the United Nation Resolutions.
21 August 1969 :
The Jew, Michael Denis Rohan, set fire to the blessed Aqsa Mosque.
28 January 1976 :
An invalid Israeli Judicial ruling was issued allowing Jews to pray within the Jerusalimite Noble Sanctuary.
20 July 1979 :
Security Council Resolution No: 452 was passed demanding the stopping of building of Israeli colonies in the occupied territories, including Jerusalem.
30 July 1980 :
The Israeli Knesset issued the so- called Basic Law annexing East Jerusalem with West Jerusalem and its consideration as a united capital for Israel.
20 August 1980 :
The passing of Security Council Resolution No: 478 stipulating the non-recognition of the basic law regarding united Jerusalem. The resolution called on the states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from it. It censured Israel severely for its endorsement of the so- called basic law in the Knesset.
5 June 1980 :
The Council of the Foreign Ministers of the Islamic States, that met in Baghdad, called on Islamic cities and capitals to conclude bonds of brotherhood with Jerusalem.
11 April 1982 :
A soldier of the Israeli occupation army attacked the Mosque of the venerable Dome of the Rock.
1 November 1983 :
The general meeting of the UNESCO agreed to place the old city of Jerusalem on the list of the World Endangered Heritage.
8 October 1990 :
The Israeli occupation army committed a massacre in the Al- Haram Al- Shareef in which 23 persons were martyred, in addition to a large number of injured.
13 September 1993 :
The signing of the Oslo Accord. According to this, the question of Jerusalem was postponed to the so-called final solution stage , which was supposed to be reached by the year 1999.
25 October 1994 :
The Wadi Araba Agreement was signed. Under this, Israel undertook to respect the current special role of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan vis-à-vis the Islamic holy places in Jerusalem. When the final status negotiations take place, Israel will assign major priority to the Jordanian historic role in these places.
24 September 1996 :
Israel opened the Aqsa tunnel, which led to the Aqsa uprising that led to 62 Palestinian martyrs and the death of 15 Jews, in addition to hundreds of injured people.
28 September 2000 :
The start of the Aqsa Intifada (uprising) in the wake of the storming of Ariel Sharon (the then head of the Likud opposition party and the present Prime Minister of Israel) of the Noble Sanctuary. He was guarded by 3000 Israeli soldiers. This came in the aftermath of the failure of the so-called Camp David talks.
Jerusalem : The Inhabitants
– In 1918, the number of Palestinians in Old and New Jerusalem was circa (ca.) 30,000 .
– In 1918, the number of Jews in Old and New Jerusalem was ca. 10,000.
– In 1948, the number of Palestinians in Old and New Jerusalem was ca. 86,000.
– In 1948, the number of Jews in Old and New (West) Jerusalem was ca. 99,000.
– In 1967, the number of Palestinians in Old Jerusalem and its eastern environs was ca. 83,000.
– In 1967, the number of Jews in New (west) Jerusalem was ca. 213,000.
– In 2000, the number of Palestinians in the Eastern Sector of Occupied Jerusalem was ca. 215,000.
– In 2000, the number of Jews in the Eastern Sector of Occupied Jerusalem was ca. 185,000 colonial Jews.
– In 2000, the number of Jews in the western part of Occupied Jerusalem was ca. 275,000 colonial Jews.
– The number of Palestinians residing in the old city was ca. 30,000 people.
– The number of colonial Jews residing in the old city was ca. 2,000.
– In 2000, the number of the Palestinians in the western part of Occupied Jerusalem was ca. a few thousand.
– The average annual number of colonial Jews emigrating out of Jerusalem is 16,000. The annual influx to the city of Jews is 9,300.
– The rate of Palestinian families living below the absolute poverty line in Jerusalem is 60%.
– The rate of Palestinian persons living in overcrowded conditions in Jerusalem is 62%.
– The rate of Palestinian children living under the poverty line in Jerusalem is 70%.
– The rate of Palestinian natural increase in East Jerusalem is 29.4 per 1,000.
– The rate of natural Jewish increase in East Jerusalem is 19.6 per 1,000.
– The rate of house occupancy of each Palestinian dwelling in Jerusalem is 8.4 individuals.
– The rate of Jewish house occupancy in Jerusalem is 3.6 colonial Jews.
– The Israeli tax burden exceeds the capacities of 95% of the Palestinian Jerusalimites.
– There are 20,000 Palestinian children who are denied registration on their parents. identity cards.
– Israel confiscated more than 6,000 residency permits of the Palestinians in Jerusalem.
– Israel has demolished around 2,000 houses since the occupation of 1967.
– The number of Palestinian Jerusalimites who were expelled from the city by Israel, or denied return therein, or who were forced to move outside the city (due to housing, education or living considerations) is figured to be 500,000. This number dates back to 1948 and includes their children and grandchildren.
– The number of Christians in Jerusalem decreased dangerously as follows:
Their number before the occupation in 1967
Their number in 1975 was 12,760.
Their number in 1985 was 12,300.
In 1998 only 5,000 remained.
– The inhabitants of Jerusalem: selected years.
Jerusalem inhabitants during the period
of the British Mandate
The Jewish population in Jerusalem exceeded that of the Arabs due to the British policy, which encouraged Jewish immigration to the city.
Jerusalem : The Area
A- Old Jerusalem (Inside The Wall):
– Its area, beginning with its establishment by the Arab Canaaites, and until the first millennium B.C, was 47 dunums.
– From the first century A.D., until the middle of the sixteenth century A.D., its area was 700 dunums.
– From the middle of the sixteenth century and until now, its area is 871 dunums.
B- The Area of New Jerusalem (Outside the Wall):
– The built area of Jerusalem until the year 1918 was 4,130 dunums. The Jews only owned 4% of this area.
– Since the middle of the nineteenth century and just before the 1948 Catastrophe, its area was 19,559 dunums. The built-in area in that year was 7,230 dunums. The Jewish ownership therein did not exceed 26%.
– After the Catastrophe, Jerusalem was divided into two parts along the cease- fire line.
– The western sector (West Jerusalem) where the Jews occupied 16,450 dunums, more than 84% of the area of New Jerusalem. Israel expanded the municipality of the so- called Jerusalem at the expense of the lands that it occupied in 1948. Thus, it was at the eve of the 1967 aggression around 38,000 dunums.
– The area of the eastern sector (East Jerusalem) was around 2,283 dunums (around 11%), in addition to the old walled city that remained in Arab hands. The rest of the area was a no- man zone or subject to the supervision of the United Nations.
– On the eve of the 1967 aggression, the municipality of East Jerusalem ( including the old walled city) has expanded to a little more than 6,000 dunums.
– Following the June 1967 aggression, the Israeli occupation forces enlarged the municipality of East Jerusalem to become 72,000 dunums at the expense of Arab lands. It then annexed this to the municipality of West Jerusalem in what came to be known as the municipality of United Jerusalem, which Israel subjected completely to its control.
– In 1992, Israel expanded the so- called municipality of West Jerusalem to reach 53,000 dunums. Thus, the area of the so- called Jerusalem united municipality reached around 125,000 dunums.
This is what Israel claims as an eternal capital under its own control (including Old Jerusalem that incorporates al- Haram al- Shareef and other Holy sites).
Land ownership in Old Jerusalem (the old walled city)
Total area 871 dunums (one dunum = 1000m2)
Before the 1948 catastrophe
After the 1967 occupation
Arabs (Muslims & Christians)
It is to be noted (from the above table) that, prior to 1948, Jewish ownership in the Al- Sharaf neighborhood (which the Jews call the Jewish Quarter) was 5 dunums (less than 1%). It contained three small synagogues and their annexes. In some other unconfirmed reports, it was 30 or 40 dunums. There is room for doubt in the validity of these figures.
All in all, this neighborhood was basically an Islamic property. No Jew remained in it between the periods 1948-1967.
After the occupation of 1967, Israel appropriated Al-Sharaf neighborhood, the Moroccan quarter and parts of the Meedan and Bab Al- Silsila. The area of these expropriated areas was 116 dunums. According to some sources, they were 130 or 171 dunums .
Israel demolished the Arab houses and places of business and expelled the Arab inhabitants outside the old city. Then it widened the Buraq courtyard ( which they call the Wailing Courtyard; or the courtyard of the Western Wall). It erected houses for the Jews on the ruins of the usurped Arab properties in the old city.
Land ownership in dunums, in Jerusalem following the 1948 Catastrophe- according to the cease-fire line :
as a whole
West of Jerusalem
European Christian foundations
– 856 dunums within the area of East of Jerusalem were under the supervision of the United Nations or were considered buffer zones (no man’s land) as stipulated by the terms of the cease-fire.
– 449 dunums as public property.
– 204 dunums belonging to Christian European Foundations.
– 166 dunums as Jewish property, including Al- Masharif Mount (Scopus) where the Hebrew University and Hadassa Hospital are situated.
– 37 dunums whose ownership belongs to the Arabs.
– The colonies established by the Jews on the usurped areas to the east of Jerusalem, which Israel annexed to the so- called Jerusalem united municipality.
Name of the colony
Area in Dunums
Number of dwelling units
Population in 1994
The Arab land on which the colony was built
The Jewish Quarter
The old city
Ramat Eshkol and Jifaat Humftar
The no- man” land and Lefta
The French Hill
Louise Vineyard and Summar land
The Hebrew University
Summar land and Wadi El-Jooz
Bait Jala, Bait Safafa, Shufaat
Bait Iksa, Lifta, Shufaat
No man’s land and Sor Bahir
No man’s land and Sheikh Jarrah
An industrial zone
Bait Hanina and Kalandia
Bisgat Zaeev and Bisgat Oomer
Bait Hanina, Hazmah and Anata
Bait Safafa and Bait Jala
Bait Sahoor and Soor Bahir
Up to the first of August 1993, these colonies contained 44481 housing units populated by 147100 persons.
But the plans for the so-called united Municipality of Jerusalem aim at fattening these colonies so that by the year 2000 they will number (including the new colony in Jabal Abu Ghnaim- Harhoma) 63500 dwelling units capable of absorbing 223,000 Jewish colonial settlers.
– the 1994 –1995 Jerusalem statistical book refers to the area of the Jewish Quarter as being 130 dunums, though the 1967 sequestration order stated the area to be 116 dunums. Other sources say it is 170 dunums. In this context , we have to note the following:
– 66% of the lands of East Jerusalem were expropriated by sheer brutal force. These included 61% of the lands of the West Bank and 5% of the land of the old city.
– 35% of the lands of East Jerusalem have been confiscated for the exclusive benefit of the Jewish colonial settlers.
– Israel established on the confiscated areas 15 Jewish colonies, 9 industrial zones and 100 factories.
– Israel constructed 71500 Jewish colonial units and plans to build 35,000 new colonial units for the colonial Jews.
– Israel did not allow except 10500 housing units for the Palestinians.
Situated in the south-western area of the Haram. Construction of the mosque started during the Ummayid caliph Abdul Malik Bin Marwan and was completed by his son Al- Waleed. The construction took place in the period 793-705 A.D.
The Mosque’s Area : 4400 square metres.
Length 80 metres
Width 55 metres
No. of columns 53
No. of enclosures 49
No. of colonnades 07
No. of doors 11
3- The Mosque of the Venerable Dome Of The Rock :
The Ummayid Caliph, Abdul Malik Bin Marwan, ordered the construction of the Dome . The construction work spanned the period 685-691 A.D.
– The Dome’s diameter 20. 30 meters
– Height 20.48 meters
No. of windows 16
No. of columns 12
No. of supports 04
The foundation of the Dome is composed of an octagonal building with the following specifications:
The length of the side 20 metres.
The height of the side 9.50 metres
The height of the protector 2.60 metres
No. of windows 05
No. of doors 04
No. of columns in the mosque of the Dome 40
4- Al –Buraq Wall :
This is a part of the Western Wall of Al- Haram and one of the sacred Islamic places. It is the site where the Messenger of Allah ( peace be upon him) tied the Buraq animal, which transported him from Makkah to Jerusalem.
Length of the wall 48 metres
Height of the wall 17 metres
5- Al- Marwani Prayer Place:
It is situated in the south eastern side of Al- Haram Al- Shareef . It is 2775 square metres in area and has 16 colonnades.
– Throughout the ages, the Muslims were keen on constructing various buildings in Jerusalem whether for religious or educational purposes. These included mosques, schools, hospitals, minarets, domes and public fountains.
– The following are some of these:
– Type of BuildingNo.
– Schools 57
– Caravansaries 07
– Ravines 06
– Mosques 24
– Minarets 06
– Domes 11
– Public fountains 14
– Hospices 29
– Small covered gates 07
– Cemeteries 09
Some of these buildings are still standing; while others fell or were put to different uses than the intended original one.
This is in addition to the hostels, pools, public baths, hospitals and hospices that they erected in the city and that still stand as a witness to the city’s Arabism and Islamism.
The Walls of Jerusalem:
The city of Jerusalem is divided into two parts: the city outside the walls and the old one. The old city contains all the Islamic and Christian buildings, religious and archaeological sites. The area of the old city is 871 dunums, and it is surrounded by a wall that engulfs it from all directions . The measurements of this wall are as follows:
– The northern wall : 1197.8 Metres
– The eastern wall : 0839.4 Metres
– The southern wall : 0989.0 Metres
– The western wall : 0635,8 Metres
– The height of the wall : 0011.6-12.2 Metres
– No. of open doors in the wall : 0007
– No. of closed doors : 0004
The Christian Religious Sites
The Church Of The Sepulchre
The Church of the Sepulchre is considered one of the most important Christian buildings in the city of Jerusalem.
It is situated in the Christian Quarter . It was built in the time span 328-335 A.D. by the order of Hilanah, the mother of the Roman Emperor Constantine who was the first to recognize Christianity as an official faith of the Roman State.
Other Christian religious sites in Jerusalem include :
– The Church of our Lady Maryam in the Kadroun valley that was built during 450-457 A.D.
– The Church of Hannah the Saint, which is situated between Bab Hattah and Bab Al- Asbat. It was built in the year 530 A.D.
– The Gethsemane Church that was built in the year 1924 A.D.
The Israeli Excavations in the Periphery of the Haram Al- Shareef :
The first phase:
It started in 1967 and ended in 1968. It spanned 70 metres under the southern wall of the Haram Al- Shareef to the depth of 14 metres.
The second phase:
It began in 1969 below the wall of the Haram at the point where the first stage ended. It reached the Moroccan door along 80 metres. 14 buildings were (adversely) affected by these excavations. Israel bulldozed them on 14 September 1969.
The third phase: ( the excavations of the western tunnel)
It started in 1970 and ended in 1974 . It re-started in 1975 and covered a distance of 450 meters with 11-14 meters depth. It began under the old building of the Sharia ( Islamic Jurisprudence) court, passing through five doors of the Haram. They reached a ten meters depth.
In March 1988, the Israelis began digging at the junction of the Bab al- Ghawanmah Road and the Mujahideen Road. The aim was to connect this tunnel with the 80 meter long water canal that General Conrad Tcheck discovered in the nineteenth century. On 24 September 1996, the Israeli government re-opened this tunnel, which resulted in the martyrdom of tens of Palestinians and the killing of a number of Jews.
The fourth and fifth phases:
It bagan in 1973 and continued throughout 1974. It took place along 80 metres behind the southeastern wall of al- Aqsa Mosque and the wall of al- Haram al- Shareef.
In July 1974, these excavations penetrated the southern wall of the Haram. Through this, entry was gained to the lower porticos of the Aqsa Mosque and al- Haram al- Shareef.
The Sixth Phase:
It was done under the southeastern porticos of the Aqsa Mosque. It went to a depth of 13 metres and threatens the wall of al- Haram with collapse.
The seventh phase:
It started in 1982 and continued until 1986. It took place at a spot near the middle section of the eastern wall of the city and the wall of al- Haram. It was between the door of the Church of Our Lady Maryam and the northeastern corner of the wall of the city. It adversely threatens the Bab al- Asbat Cemetery.
The eighth phase:
It is a project that aims at deepening al- Buraq Courtyard. The Moroccan Quarter was demolished on 7 June 1967. Thereafter, excavations were carried out under the Buraq Courtyard to a depth of 9 metres.
These excavations have adversely affected al- Tankaziah school, the excavations building of al- Khalidiah library and the (Islamic) religious order and mosque of Abi Madeen al- Ghowth.
The Ninth Phase:
It was undertaken under the pretext of unearthing the burial sites of the kings of Israel. It was carried out at the southern side of the wall of the Haram.
The Tenth Phase:
In this stage, the tunnel that was discovered by the English Colonel in the second half of the nineteenth century and was reopened. The excavations traversed the area between Bab al- Silsilah and Bab Al- Kattaneen. It reached under the Kaitbye public fountain along a distance of 25 metres and 6 meters wide. This tunnel was closed on 29 August 1981 by the order of the Islamic Waqf ( Endowment) Department.
The Israeli Violations In Jerusalem
The Israeli forces occupied West Jerusalem in the year 1948. They expelled and evacuated all the Arab inhabitants of the city.
They also expelled all the inhabitants of the Arab villages to the west of the city.
These became refugees in the neighboring Arab states.
Jewish colonies were erected on the ruins of Arab villages and Jews were housed into Arab homes that were demolished so that houses for Jews were built on their sites. The Israeli government declared west Jerusalem a purely Jewish domain and transferred therein the Knesset, Seat of Government, as well as other departments. It claimed it as the capital of Israel.
As for East Jerusalem, Israel occupied the city on 7 June 1967. Beginning with the first day of its occupation, Israel committed a series of grievous violations that can be summarized as follows:
A- Demolition of the Moroccan Quarter on 11 June 1967. The number of houses destroyed were 135. The number of Arab inhabitants adversely affected were 650.
B- Demolition of al- Sharaf and al-Silsilah neighborhoods on 18 April 1968. The numbers of destroyed buildings were as follows:
– Islamic buildings and properties : 0595
– Houses : 1048
– shops and stores : 0437
– mosques : 0002
– The number of the adversely affected people were 6000.
– The area that was confiscated was 116 dunums. Israel then confiscated other areas, which according to some sources, totaled 170 dunums. The occupation authorities confiscated the key of the Bab al- Magharbah ( the door of the Moroccans) overlooking the Buraq wall and took control of Bab al- Magharbah. In 1967, the Jews took possession of al- Buraq wall, claiming it to be the wailing or western wall of the alleged Temple. During the process of demolishing the Moroccan Quarter, the occupation authorities erased the Omari School; the Moroccan Hospice and the Afdaliah School. It also demolished the Tawashiah Hospice in the Arab Sharaf Quarter and built houses for Jews on its ruins.
– As a result of the Israeli excavations under al- Haram Al- Shareef, numerous buildings were adversely affected that rendered them susceptible to collapse. These buildings included the Ottoman School; the Jawhariah School and Ribat al- Kurd. In 18 April 1968, the Israeli occupation authorities confiscated the Islamic school of Dar al- Hadeeth ( Traditions of the Prophet) that was founded in 1268 during the Mamluks Era. In 1969, the Israeli occupation authorities stationed themselves in al- Tankaziah School. During the period 1981-1999, the Israeli occupation authorities demolished 282 in Jerusalem.
C– Confiscation Of Land : Since the Israeli occupation, the area of the confiscated lands by the Israeli occupation authorities within the boundaries of the so-called Jerusalem United Municipality was around 25,000 dunums which is more than the third of the area of East Jerusalem. The most flagrant violation of all lies in the Israeli racist occupation of Arab lands and the Arab human being.
References And Bibliography
1- Al-Arif, Arif, “ Detailed Treatise in the History of Jerusalem.” Al-Maarif Press, Jerusalem, 1961, first edition.
2- Al-Asali, Kamil Jameel, “ Jerusalem in History.” Publications of the University of Jordan, Amman, 1992. first edition.
3- Al-Asali, Kamil Jameel, “Learning Institutions in Beit al-Makdis.” The Cooperative Society of Printing Press Workers, Amman, 1961, first edition.
4- Jiryis, Sameer, “Jerusalem, the Zionist Designs, the Occupation and Judaization”. Published by the Palestinian studies foundation, Beirut, 1968, first edition.
5- Mustafa, Waleed, “ Jerusalem: Population and Civilization Between 1850-1996”. Published by the Jerusalem Centre for Information and Communication, Jerusalem, 1997, first edition.
6- The Center for the Study and Documentation of the Palestinian Community, “Towards a Palestinian Strategy for Jerusalem”. Edited by Salih Abdul Jawad, Beir Zeit University Publication, 1998, first edition.